Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is an advanced charging technology that more efficiently harvests power from solar panels in all conditions. It does this by continuously tracking the I-V curve of the solar array and modifying operating conditions to maximize output power. The graph below shows the MPPT point compared to a traditional PWM charger, which always runs the solar array at a voltage close to the battery voltage.
Due to differences in ambient temperature and light conditions, the maximum power point often changes. The MPPT controller can adjust parameters according to quickly changing conditions to keep the system near to its maximum working point. The whole process is fully automatic and does not require any adjustments or interference by users.
The graph below shows how the IV curve of a solar panel changes with varying sunlight conditions:
The graph below shows how the IV curve of a solar panel changes with varying temperatures.
In partially shaded conditions there can also be multiple peaks in the P-V curve that can confuse an MPPT algorithm. Shown in the diagram below is a series string of solar panels.
A corresponding graph below shows lower maximum power points (LMPP) and the greater maxim power point (GMPP) that will result in maximum energy transfer. The GP-RVC series has a smart algorithm that will always choose the right peak.